THE DOMOTICS AND THE FUTURE OF THE CITY
The ecological solution for the energy management of buildings
As a result of the accelerated, and sometimes, unbridled, advance of technology, it has made its presence felt even in the most private space of our life: home. Its application to this area is known as home automation - from the Latin domus, 'house', and from the French robotique, in reference to the automation of functions, which is its objective -, name that refers to the combination of technologies of the Information with automation means that applies to comfort, communication services, security and storage and management of energy in the home. On the other hand, although the automation of private residence services was its original objective, through appropriate adjustments, the implementations applicable to the so-called 'home automation' can also be extended to other types of places, such as public spaces, hotels and offices.
The home automation program, so to speak, has two main axes: to allow the most optimal and efficient use of the energy required by domestic services, and to create an increasingly integrated network between these services and their users.
'Home automation differs from bioclimatic housing, to which it has been associated in recent years, in that the latter is characterized by having an architectural design appropriate to the climatic and geographical conditions surrounding the construction, which allows reducing both energy consumption such as the emission of greenhouse gases, while the former seeks to meet these objectives through automatic responses to the variable conditions of demand for services'.
One of the first functional solutions offered by home automation was the X10 Protocol, developed in Scotland in the 1970s. It is a remote control system for home devices - which is still used today - that uses the electrical installation to send coded messages in the form of pulses. Initially, this protocol allowed only remote control of household appliances and some other domestic functions, such as the lighting of lights and the opening and closing of doors and windows, but, over time, has managed to cover the management of more complex systems, such as the differentiated air conditioning of each section of a house. Also, as expected, this flexible protocol was soon assimilated by computers, which, after adding internet access to the equation, established a powerful triple alliance that has made it possible to automate the management of entire buildings - offices , of housing, or mixed - to give way to the famous 'intelligent buildings', the state of the art in terms of architectural design.
As it has been said, the rational management of energy consumption is the other major home automation goal, and we can see its applications in the programmed and self-adjusting control of air conditioning, as well as in the regulation of tariffs by means of automated energy management, which allows, among other things, the synchronization of the operation of some devices with the hours of reduced rates; in the same way, it allows the control of the lighting of lights, which can be coordinated with the weather conditions outside. Since this class of systems allows the control of lighting, security alarms, etc., its application could reduce the demand for community services, which, in conjunction with instant fault detection, makes the home automation system more economical compared to non-automated control systems.
In turn, home automation can be applied to real estate, which is defined as the integral automation applicable to buildings, in terms of the ability to automate facilities such as airports, hospitals, hotels, industrial buildings, and so on.
While the massive introduction of home automation systems would be possible in countries like Mexico in the medium term, it is important to consider that their adoption - according to studies carried out in Spain, mainly - depends largely on the willingness of the real estate industry to execute the pertinent modifications in a building with traditional mechanized systems, or to invest in its implementation from the design stage of the new constructions. According to several estimates, the elementary infrastructure for the domotization of a home increases its basic price by a maximum of 2% of the original cost, which, however, is an almost symbolic cost considering the endless benefits of its use.
In short, home automation is presented as one of the great ecological solutions for the energy management of buildings of any kind, from a house to a residential or commercial complex. Therefore, home automation can be, in the not too distant future, the ideal alternative to face the problems that afflict large cities around the world.
'It is likely that the film debut of home automation has taken place on the tape Eddy, the computer in love, one of the most remembered blockbusters of the eighties, in which the cyber protagonist takes control of the owner's department through several adapters equipped with a version of the X10 'Protocol.
Source: Revista Vector